Due to the use of fossil fuels such as coal to power blast furnaces, the steel-making process is energy and carbon-intensive, and output has increased in recent years. According to worldsteel, 75% of the world's industrial CO2 needs to be captured to meet emissions targets. Industrial Carbon Capture and storage (CCS) is a combination of technologies designed to prevent CO 2 emissions from normal power generation and industrial processes by injecting CO 2 into suitable underground storage tanks.
Carbon capture, use, and storage refer to a set of technologies that selectively capture carbon dioxide from industrial sources or the atmosphere, where the captured molecules are geologically stored or "refined" to produce products.
Since many experts see hydrogen as the clean fuel of the future and expect it to play an important role in decarbonizing the industrial sector, a process such as natural gas reforming with carbon capture technology appears to be the cheapest option to produce clean hydrogen. This process produces "blue hydrogen" by converting natural gas into hydrogen and carbon dioxide; the carbon dioxide by-product will be captured, transported, and stored in deep geological formations.
Similar technology to capture before combustion is used in fertilizer and hydrogen production, where the captured CO 2 is used in other industrial processes or discarded. Post-combustion capture is more popular in research because fossil fuel power plants can be adapted to include CCS technology in this plant.